The most famous artists of the 19th and 20th century

Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marqués de Dalí de Pubol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), known as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish Catalan surrealist painter born in Figueres, Spain. Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí's expansive artistic repertoire included film, sculpture, and photography, in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media. Dalí was highly imaginative, and also enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. His eccentric manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork, to the dismay of those who held his work in high esteem, and to the irritation of his critics.

The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus 1959
The Discovery of America by
Christopher Columbus

The artistic genius of Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) has impacted the development of modern and contemporary art with unparalleled magnitude. His prolific output includes over 20,000 paintings, prints, drawings, sculptures, ceramics, theater sets and costumes that convey myriad intellectual, political, social, and amorous messages. His creative styles transcend realism and abstraction, Cubism, Neoclassicism, Surrealism, and Expressionism. Born in Malaga, Spain, in 1881, Picasso studied art briefly in Madrid in 1897, then in Barcelona in 1899, where he became closely associated with a group of modernist poets, writers, and artists who gathered at the café Els Quatre Gats (The Four Cats), including the Catalan Carlos Casagemas (1880–1901).

1901-1902 Absinthe Drinker
Absinthe Drinker

Van Gogh (van Gogh) Vincent (Vincent Willem) (30.03.1853, Grot-Zundert, Netherlands - 29/07/1890, Auvers-sur-Oise, France), a Dutch painter. The son of a pastor. In 1869-76 he served the commission art-trading company in The Hague, Brussels, London and Paris, in 1876 - as a teacher in England. By studying theology in 1878-79 was a preacher in the Borinage (Belgium), where he learned a difficult life of the miners; protection of their interests resulted in Van Gogh to conflict with church authorities. In the 1880s. Van Gogh refers to art: visits of Arts in Brussels (1880-81) and in Antwerp (1885-86), on the advice of A. Mauve at The Hague. Van Gogh with passion draws disadvantaged people - miners Borinage, and later - peasants, artisans, fishermen, whose life he observed in the Netherlands in 1881-85. At the age of 30 Van Gogh starts to paint and creates an extensive series of paintings and sketches made ​​in the dark, somber colors and steeped in warm sympathy for the common people.

Still Life Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers 1889
Still Life Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers

Oscar-Claude Monet 14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926 was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. The term "Impressionism" is derived from the title of his painting Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which was exhibited in 1874 in the first of the independent exhibitions mounted by Monet and his associates as an alternative to the Salon de Paris. Monet's ambition of documenting the French countryside led him to adopt a method of painting the same scene many times in order to capture the changing of light and the passing of the seasons. From 1883 Monet lived in Giverny, where he purchased a house and property, and began a vast landscaping project which included lily ponds that would become the subjects of his best-known works. In 1899 he began painting the water lilies, first in vertical views with a Japanese bridge as a central feature, and later in the series of large-scale paintings that was to occupy him continuously for the next 20 years of his life

Women in the garden 1866
Women in the garden

Gustav Klimt was born 150 years ago, on 14th July 1862, into a lower-middle-class family in the Viennese suburb of Baumgarten as the second of seven children. His childhood and youth coincided with the zenith of the Gründerzeit, the period in nineteenth-century Germany and Austria marked by economic prosperity and large-scale construction. The great Ringstrasse project of monumental building was just entering its final phase. Despite their difficult financial situation, the Klimts enjoyed a harmonious family life, and the siblings remained close throughout their lifetimes. With much sacrifice on the part of the family, the talented young Gustav was sent to Vienna's School of Arts and Crafts (Kunstgewerbeschule), which later became the University of Applied Arts. He soon found himself in the midst of a group of artists who were working on the decoration of the new Ringstrasse buildings.

1912 Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer
Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer

Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse 1869 – 1954 was a French artist, known for his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter. Matisse is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso and Marcel Duchamp, as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture. Although he was initially labelled a Fauve (wild beast), by the 1920s he was increasingly hailed as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting. His mastery of the expressive language of colour and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century, won him recognition as a leading figure in modern art.

Portrait of the Artist's Wife 1913
Portrait of the Artist's Wife

Gauguin (Gauguin) Eugène Henri Paul (06.07.1848, Paris - 05.08.1903, pos. Atuona, Marquesas Islands), French painter. In his youth he served sailor, from 1871 - a stockbroker in Paris. In the 1870s. alone took up painting. In 1883 threw Exchange and dedicated himself entirely to art, which led to poverty Gauguin, a break with the family, wandering. In 1886 lived in Pont-Aven (Brittany), in 1887 - in Panama and on the island of Martinique, in 1888 he worked for two months (with W. van Gogh) in Arles, in 1889-91 - mainly in Le Pouldu (Brittany) . Early years was due to Impressionism. In the future rejection of bourgeois civilization awaken the interest in folk art, with its naive perception of the world, the art of archaic Greece, the Middle Ages, Ancient East.

Self portrait with palette 1894
Self portrait with palette 1894

Degas (Degas) Hilaire Germain Edgar (19.07.1834, Paris - 09.27.1917, ibid), French painter, graphic artist and sculptor. In 1855-56 he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1854-59 had lived in Italy; studied art of the Italian Quattrocento. Was influenced by JAD Ingres, effort addiction Degas linear basis pictorial form. Began with austere compositions of historical paintings and portraits ("Bellelli Family", about 1858-60, Museum of Impressionism, Paris). Outlined in Degas at the end of the 1860s. the principle of acute and dynamic perception of the environment and everyday life of the person closer together the artist in the 1870s. with Impressionism. Fascinated by the diversity and mobility of urban life, he wrote the contemporary Paris (street theater, cafes, horse racing) in a continuously changing dimensions, recreating the atmosphere of the capitalist city ("Concorde", around 1875, "Absinthe", 1876, Museum of Impressionism).

The Absinthe Drinker 1876
The Absinthe Drinker 1876

Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty, and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau."
Renoir was one of the leading painters of the Impressionist group. He evolved a technique of broken brushstrokes and used bold combinations of pure complementary colours, to capture the light and movement of his landscapes and figure subjects. Following a visit to Italy in 1881 his style changed, becoming more linear and classical.
Renoir was born in Limoges in south-west France, where he began work as a painter on porcelain. He moved to Paris, joining the studio of the fashionable painter Charles Gleyre in around 1861. Courbet influenced the young Renoir. In Paris he encountered other painters, notably Monet and Sisley, who were later to become Impressionists. In 1869 he and Monet worked together sketching on the Seine, and Renoir began to use lighter colours.

Hills around Moulin Huet Bay, Guernsey 1883 46x65cm oilcanvas The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Hills around Moulin Huet Bay, Guernsey

Impressionism & Post-Impressionism.
In the 1880s, Georges Seurat was at the forefront of the challenges to Impressionism with his unique analyses based on then-current notions of optical and color theories. Seurat believed that by placing tiny dabs of pure colors adjacent to one another, a viewer's eye compensated for the visual disparity between the two by "mixing" the primaries to model a composite hue. The Study for "A Sunday on La Grande Jatte" embodies Seurat's experimental style, which was dubbed Neo-Impressionism. This painting, the last sketch for the final picture that debuted in 1886 at the eighth and final Impressionist exhibition (today in the Art Institute of Chicago), depicts a landscape scene peopled with figures at leisure, a familiar subject of the Impressionists. But Seurat's updated style invigorates the otherwise conventional subject with a virtuoso application of color and pigment. In Circus Sideshow , he uses this technique to paint a rare nighttime scene illuminated by artificial light.

Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte 1886 Georges Seurat
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
1886 Georges Seurat

Paul Cézanne (19.01.1839 – 22.10.1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Cézanne's often repetitive, exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields. The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects. Cézanne is said to have formed the bridge between late 19th-century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. Both Matisse and Picasso are said to have remarked that Cézanne "is the father of us all."

The card players 1892
The card players

Joseph Mallord William Turner 1775-1851 was an English Romanticist landscape painter.
In the late 1780s Turner developed his landscape style from that of Richard Wilson. In the early years of the nineteenth century he emulated the two great masters of seventeenth century landscape, Poussin and Claude, and by the 1830s when he exhibited his first oil paintings of Venice, he had widenened the field of celebrated masters to be challenged in his own work. In 1831 he laid claim to the inheritance of Watteau in his Watteau Study by Fresnoy's Rules (Tate Britain, London) and in 1833 placed himself in the line of the great Dutch marine tradition with Van Goyen, looking out for a subject (Frick Collection, New York). That same year, 1833, he exhibited his first two Venetian subjects. With Bridge of Sighs, Ducal Palace (now lost) and Custom House, Venice: Canaletti painting (Tate Britain, London), he immediately, and deliberately, established his position as the descendant of his great Venetian precursor.

The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up 1839
The Fighting Temeraire tugged
to her last berth to
be broken up 1839